Viêm Gan A Vacxin - Pneumococcal Vaccine Overview


Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. The vi khuẩn is one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause liver inflammation & affect your liver"s ability khổng lồ function.

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You"re most likely lớn get hepatitis A from contaminated food or water or from close liên hệ with a person or object that"s infected. Mild cases of hepatitis A don"t require treatment. Most people are infected recover completely with no permanent liver damage.

Practicing good hygiene, including washing hands frequently, can prevent the spread of the virus. The hepatitis A vaccine can protect against hepatitis A.


Hepatitis A symptoms typically appear a few weeks after you"ve had the virus. But not everyone with hepatitis A develops symptoms. If you do, symptoms can include:

Unusual tiredness và weakness Sudden nausea and vomiting and diarrhea Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially on the upper right side beneath your lower ribs, which is over your liver Clay- or gray-colored stool Loss of appetite Low-grade fever Dark urine Joint pain Yellowing of the skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) Intense itching

These symptoms may be relatively mild and go away in a few weeks. Sometimes, however, hepatitis A results in a severe illness that lasts several months.

When khổng lồ see a doctor

Make an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of hepatitis A.

Getting the hepatitis A vaccine or an injection of an antibody called immunoglobulin within two weeks of exposure khổng lồ the hepatitis A vi khuẩn may protect you from infection.

Ask your health care provider or your local health department about receiving the hepatitis A vaccine if:

You traveled recently khổng lồ areas where the virut is common, particularly Mexico, Central America & South America or to lớn areas with poor sanitation You ate at a restaurant with a hepatitis A outbreak You live with someone has hepatitis A You recently had sexual tương tác with someone has hepatitis A
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This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development và distribution. Learn more about vaccines – from how they work and how they’re made to lớn ensuring safety and equitable access – in’s Vaccines Explained series.

Germs are all around us, both in our environment and in our bodies. When a person is susceptible & they encounter a harmful organism, it can lead lớn disease và death.

The body toàn thân has many ways of defending itself againstpathogens(disease-causing organisms). Skin, mucus, & cilia (microscopic hairs that move debris away from the lungs) all work as physical barriers to prevent pathogensfrom entering the body in the first place.

When a pathogen does infect the body, our body’s defences, called the immune system, are triggered and the pathogen is attacked and destroyed or overcome.

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The body"s natural response

A pathogen is a bacterium, virus, parasite or fungus that can cause disease within the body. Each pathogen is made up of several subparts, usually chất lượng to that specific pathogen và the disease it causes. The subpart of a pathogen that causes theformation of antibodies is called an antigen. The antibodies produced in response to lớn the pathogen’s antigen are an important part of the immune system. You can consider antibodies as the soldiers in your body’s defense system. Eachantibody, or soldier, in our system is trained to recognize one specific antigen. We have thousands of different antibodies in our bodies. When the human body toàn thân is exposed to an antigen for the first time, it takes time for the immune system torespond & produce antibodies specific lớn that antigen.

In the meantime, the person is susceptible khổng lồ becoming ill.

Once the antigen-specific antibodies are produced, they work with the rest of the immune system to destroy the pathogen and stop the disease. Antibodies to one pathogen generally don’t protect against another pathogen except when two pathogensare very similar to each other, lượt thích cousins. Once the body produces antibodies in its primary response to lớn an antigen, it also creates antibody-producing memory cells, which remain alive even after the pathogen is defeated by the antibodies. Ifthe toàn thân is exposed khổng lồ the same pathogen more than once, the antibody response is much faster và more effective than the first time around because the memory cells are at the ready khổng lồ pump out antibodies against that antigen.

This means that if the person is exposed to lớn the dangerous pathogen in the future, their immune system will be able khổng lồ respond immediately, protecting against disease.


How vaccines help

Vaccines contain weakened or inactive parts of a particular organism (antigen) that triggers an immune response within the body. Newer vaccines contain the blueprint for producing antigens rather than the antigen itself. Regardless of whether the vaccineis made up of the antigen itself or the blueprint so that the toàn thân will produce the antigen, this weakened version will not cause the disease in the person receiving the vaccine, but it will prompt their immune system lớn respond much as it would haveon its first reaction lớn the actual pathogen.


Some vaccines require multiple doses, given weeks or months apart. This is sometimes needed lớn allow for the production of long-lived antibodies và development of memory cells. In this way, the body is trained to lớn fight the specific disease-causing organism,building up memory of the pathogen so as khổng lồ rapidly fight it if & when exposed in the future.

Herd immunity

When someone is vaccinated, they are very likely to be protected against the targeted disease. But not everyone can be vaccinated. People with underlying health conditions that weaken their immune systems (such as cancer or HIV) or have severe allergiesto some vaccine components may not be able lớn get vaccinated with certain vaccines. These people can still be protected if they live in và amongst others are vaccinated. When a lot of people in a community are vaccinated the pathogen has a hardtime circulating because most of the people it encounters are immune. So the more that others are vaccinated, the less likely people are unable khổng lồ be protected by vaccines are at risk of even being exposed lớn the harmful pathogens. This is calledherd immunity.

This is especially important for those people not only can’t be vaccinated but may be more susceptible khổng lồ the diseases we vaccinate against. No single vaccine provides 100% protection, và herd immunity does not provide full protection khổng lồ cannot safely be vaccinated. But with herd immunity, these people will have substantial protection, thanks lớn those around them being vaccinated.

Vaccinating not only protects yourself, but also protects those in the community are unable to lớn be vaccinated. If you are able to, get vaccinated.


Throughout history, humans have successfully developed vaccines for a number of life-threatening diseases, including meningitis, tetanus, measles andwild poliovirus.

In the early 1900s, polio was a worldwide disease, paralysing hundreds of thousands of people every year. By 1950, two effective vaccines against the disease had been developed. But vaccination in some parts of the world was still not common enough tostop the spread of polio, particularly in Africa. In the 1980s, a united worldwide effort to lớn eradicate polio from the planet began. Over many years và several decades, polio vaccination, using routine immunization visits & mass vaccination campaigns,has taken place in all continents. Millions of people, mostly children, have been vaccinated và in August 2020, the African continent was certifiedwild poliovirus free, joining all other parts of the world except Pakistan và Afghanistan, wherepolio has not yet been eradicated.

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